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Indian constitution short notes

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Indian constitution short notes for fast memorise all points and facts. This is most important notes for aspirants. We hope you read it carefully. indian constitutional history.

Indian constitution short notes:

  • 1934: Idea of constituent assembly put forward by M N Roy
  • 1935: INC officially demands a constituent assembly
  • 1938: JL Nehru’s declaration on the constitution of India
  • 1940: Nehru’s demand accepted in the form of August Offer

August Offer:

  • PM: Winston Churchill
    • While rejecting the INCs demand for independence of India after the war on the ground that INC is not representative of the minorities, three offers were made
    • Expansion of Viceroy’s executive council with the inclusion of Indian representatives
    • An advisory body with the members from British India and Indian princely states which were supposed to meet at consequent intervals was established
    • Two practical steps were decided to be taken in which it was to come at an agreement with the Indians on the form which the post representatives body should take and the methods by which it should come to a conclusion.
    • It further planned to draw out the principles and outlines of the Constitution itself
    • Congress rejected the offer.

1942: Cripps Mission:

  • PM: Winston Churchill
  • Sec of State: Leo Amery
  • Viceroy: Linlithgow
  • On the framing of an independent constitution to be adopted after the WW II
  • Cripps proposals rejected by the ML which wanted India to be divided into two autonomous states.

1946: Cabinet Mission:

  • PM: Clement Attlee Viceroy: Lord Wavell
  • Members: Pethick Lawrence (sec of state for India), Stafford Cripps, A V Alexander
  • Simla Conference

May 16 plan:

  • United Dominion of India would be given independence
  • Muslim majority and Hindu majority provinces to be grouped
  • Central government to run foreign affairs, defence and communications while rest of the responsibility would belong to the provinces, coordinated by the two groups
  • An interim cabinet was formed. ML joined the cabinet but decided to boycott the constituent assembly.
  • 1946, Nov: Constituent Assembly formed under the Cabinet Mission Plan
  • The first meeting of CA on December 9, 1946. Satchidananda Sinha was elected the temporary President
  • Dec 11, 1946: Rajendra Prasad and H C Mukherjee elected as the President and VP of the assembly respectively.
  • BN Rao was the constitutional advisor to the assembly
  • Dec 13, 1946: Objectives Resolution moved by JL Nehru
  • Jan 22, 1947: Objectives resolution adopted
  • June 3, 1947: Mountbatten plan. Partition of the country announced.

Jan 24, 1950: Final session of the CA. It however continued as a provisional body from Jan 26, 1950: till the formation of the new Parliament after the first general elections in 1951-52

Read:  History class notes 

Major Committees of CA:

constitution of india

 

Committee

Chairman

Union Powers Committee JL Nehru
Union Constitution Committee JL Nehru
Committee for Negotiating with States JL Nehru
Steering Committee Rajendra Prasad
Rules of Procedure Committee Rajendra Prasad
Provincial Constitution Committee Sardar Patel
Committee on Fundamental Rights and  Minorities.

 

Two subcommittees ( FR, Minorities)

Sardar Patel

 

(J B Kriplani, H C Mukharjee)

Drafting Committee B R Ambedkar
  • Drafting Committee was set up on Aug 29, 1947. It had seven members.
    1. B R Ambedkar
    2. Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyer
    3. N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar
    4. K M Munshi
    5. TT Krishnamchari
    6. N Madhava Rau
    7. Syed Mohammad Saadullah
  • Nov 26, 1949: Constitution was adopted
  • The Preamble was enacted after the entire Constitution was already enacted.

Governor:

  • The same person can be appointed the governor of two or more states
  • Appointed by the President
  • May resign by writing to the President
  • Qualification
    • Citizen of India
    • 35 years of age
  • Art 161: Pardon for any offence against a law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the state extends
  • Constitution does not state the procedure or the grounds for the removal of the Governor

Read: Geography class Notes 

Council of Ministers:

  • The advice tendered by the CoM cannot be enquired in a court
  • Number of ministers in the CoM (including the PM) cannot exceed 15 pc of the total number of members of LS (91st amendment, 2003)
  • If a person is disqualified under the 10th schedule (defection), he cannot become a minister
  • Art 75(3): Collective responsibility

Attorney General:

  • Article 76
  • Should be qualified to be appointed as a judge of the SC
  • Right of the audience in all courts in the territory of India
  • Has the right to take part in the proceedings of either house, without the right to vote.

Parliament:

  • Consists of the President, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
  • Six months should not intervene between consecutive sessions
  • The president shall address a joint sitting of both the houses at the first session of every year and at the first session after the general elections
  • The Chairman and Speaker can vote only in case of equality of votes
  • Quorum: One-tenth of the total number of members of the House
  • MPs resign by addressing their resignation to the Speaker of the Chairman
  • If a member is continuously absent for 60 days without permission for all the meetings of the House, his seat is declared vacant
  • Article 102: grounds for disqualification.
    • 5 grounds
  • The decision on questions as to disqualification of members shall be referred to the President and his decision shall be final. The President, in giving his decision, shall act in accordance with the advice of the Election Commission
  • Joint sitting: If passed by one house and rejected by the other, disagreement between houses on the amendments to the bill, more than six months have passed and the other house has not passed the bill
  • Joint sitting does not apply to Money Bills

Hindi Medium Study Material: Download all exams notes click here

Council of States:

  • Elected members: 238 from state and union territories
    • Allocation of seats given in the 4th schedule
  • Nominated members: 12
    • From the field of Literature, science, art and social service
  • Elected members of the states to be elected by respective Legislative Assembly by proportional representation by means of single transferable vote
  • Representatives of UTs to be chosen as Parliament may by law prescribe
  • 1/3 members retire every 2 years
  • At least 30 years of age
  • Deputy Chairman can resign by addressing to the Chairman

Most RS seats: UP>Maharashtra>TN=AP>Bihar=WB>Karnataka

States with only one RS seat: Arunachal, Goa, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura

States with least RS seats: Above 8<HP=Uttaranchal<J&K<Haryana=CG

UTs: Delhi-3, Puducherry-1, Rest-zero

House of People:

  • 530 members from states by direct elections
  • 20 from UTs chosen in a manner prescribed by the Parliament
  • 2 nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian community if it is not represented
  • The ratio of LS seats allocated to a state and its population should be same across states
    • This may not be followed if the population of the state is less than 6 million
  • The population kept as frozen till the census taken after 2026
    • For LS constituency allotment to states: 1971 census data used
    • For defining  boundaries of constituencies: 2001 census data used
  • At least 25 years of age
  • Speaker can resign by addressing to the Dy Speaker. The latter can resign by addressing to the Speaker
  • When LS is dissolved, the Speaker shall not vacate his office until immediately before the first meeting of the LS after its dissolution
  • Whenever the Deputy Speaker is appointed as a member of a parliamentary committee, he automatically becomes its chairman

Most LS seats: UP>Maharashtra>AP=WB>Bihar>TN

States with one LS seat: Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim

Least LS seats: Above 3<Manipur=Meghalaya=Goa=AP=Tripura<HP<Uttaranchal<J&K

UTs: Delhi(7), Puducherry(2), Rest -1

Reserved for SC: UP – 17, WB – 10

Reserved for ST: MP – 6, Jharkhand, Orissa – 5, CG, Gujarat, Maharashtra – 4

Also Read: Hindi Grammar Class Notes

Anangpal Singh Rathorehttps://anangpal.com
I am an Aspirant of Indian civil services. works freelancer as digital and content marketer and sometime author. You can usually find me exploring, editing or reading. My curiosity leads me to learn something new everyday. I try to pursue life through a creative lens and find inspiration in others and nature. I enjoy testing new technologies, discovering new ways to make things easier, and, especially, telling everybody stories about my discoveries.

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